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时间:2016-10-21 04:16 点击:

"Anything looks like a favor to women would be used against them."——任何看起来像是对女性的特别优待最终都会反过来制约她们。

Laws which disable women from full participation in the political, business and economic arenas are often characterized as "protective" and beneficial... The pedestal upon which women have been placed has all too often, upon closer inspection, been revealed as a cage.
——Ginsberg's Brief in Reed v. Reed, 1971

“那些阻止女性充分参与政治、商业和经济领域的法律常常被描绘为'保护女性'或是为女性着想……女性看似是被捧在高台上细心呵护,但细看却是被关在了伪装成高台的牢笼之中。”
——作为原告律师的金斯伯格(现任美国最高法院大法官)1971年在里德诉里德案的辩护状中写道

Heading the list of arbitrary barriers that have plagued women seeking equal opportunity is disadvantaged treatment based on their unique childbearing function. Until very recent years, jurists have regarded any discrimination in the treatment of pregnant women and mothers as "benignly in their favor." But in fact, restrictive rules ... operate as "built-in headwinds" that drastically curtail women's opportunities. Decisions of this Court that span a century have contributed to this anomaly: presumably well-meaning exaltation of women's unique role in bearing children has, in effect, restrained women from developing their individual talents and capacities and has impelled them to accept a dependent, subordinate status in society.
——Ginsberg's brief in Struck v. Secretary of Defense, 1971

"在各种阻碍女性追求平等权利的障碍中,因为女性特有的生育能力而造成的区别对待首当其冲。直到最近,法学家们都还认为任何对孕妇和母亲的歧视实际上都是“为了她们好”。但实际上,各种限制性规定是阻碍女性发展的最大障碍。最高法院近一百年来的判例也加重了这种对女性的不公对待:看似是对女性独有的生育能力的善意褒奖与保护,实际上却阻碍了她们发挥自己个人才华与能力,并迫使她们接受自己在社会中从属、依附的地位。”

——金斯伯格1971年在斯科拉克诉国防部长案的辩护状中写道


#benevolentsexism:#“仁慈的性别歧视”


性别歧视伤害所有人。

如果女性因为怀孕要休长时间产假的可能性而找不到工作,男性同样也会受到伤害。

在一个社会中,如果女性知道教育、能力、才华都无法给自己带来职场上的成功,那么就会有相当一部分人转而要求男性必须为她提供生活保障。这意味着,买房、买车、支付彩礼,大部分男性都没有能力达到这样的要求,于是转而压榨父母。

生完孩子之后,女性呆在家里照顾孩子,因为没有办法施展才华过得憋屈;男性天天在外打拼,经常见不到家人,享受不了养育孩子的乐趣,也过得憋屈。生二胎?只有一个人工作的家庭能养得起吗?能够给两个孩子都提供良好的教育和充足的爱与关注吗?

女性主义者眼中的世界并不是男性压迫女性,而是男性和女性共同被这个社会的制度与文化压迫着。在一个理想的社会中,男性和女性共同承担家庭的责任,共同享受家庭生活带来的乐趣。For women to be equal, men have to be free. 反过来也一样。


10月3日补充一小段

"Inherent differences" between men and women, we have come to appreciate, remain cause for celebration, but not for denigration of the members of either sex or for artificial constrains on an individual's opportunity. Sex classifications may be used to compensate women "for particular economic disabilities they have suffered," to "promote equal employment opportunity, to advance full development of the talent and capacities of our Nation's people." But such classificiation may not be used, as they once were, to create or perpetuate the legal, social, and economic inferiority of women.
——Ginsberg's opinion in United States v. Virginia, 1996

"我们逐渐理解了,男女之间‘本质的不同’(指只有女性可以怀孕)依然是值得庆祝的事实,但这并不能成为人为限制某一性别享有平等机会的借口。对性别的区别对待可以被用来补偿女性‘因某些特定原因而遭受的经济不公’,用来‘鼓励平等就业机会,或是鼓励我国所有人民充分发挥其天赋和才能’。但这种区分对待不能像从前那样,被用来设置或维持女性在法律、社会或经济上的低等地位。”

——金斯伯格大法官在1996年美利坚合众国诉弗吉尼亚州案中代表多数大法官撰写的判决书



关于职场中为什么有性别歧视,请看性别歧视行为是否是趋利的,发达国家应对歧视主要使用经济手段还是法律手段? - 骆伟倩的回答

关于职业女性在生育决定中的困惑,请看如果出于对职业前景的考虑,「更早生育」对女性来说是不是反而是好事? - 骆伟倩的回答


但是呢,人生还是有很多美好的。最后来一波金斯伯格大法官的正能量:围观美国法律界大佬秀恩爱:最高院大法官金斯伯格和她的丈夫 - 在亚美利加做律师 - 知乎专栏

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